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سلام دوستان.اسمم بیتاست و می خوام در آینده ی خیلی نزدیک خلبان بشم.این وب سایت درباره ی پرواز,خلبانی و هواپیماست.امیدوارم خوشتون بیاد و بتونین از مطالبش استفاده کنین.واسم دعا کنین تا موفق بشم.
ممنون که اومدین...
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Hi. My name is Bita and I want to become a pilot in the near future. This website is about flights, pilots and planes and etc. I hope you like and use of their contents. Pray for me to be successful.
Thanks to come ...

مدیر وبلاگ : بیتا
نویسندگان
آمار وبلاگ
  • کل بازدید :
  • بازدید امروز :
  • بازدید دیروز :
  • بازدید این ماه :
  • بازدید ماه قبل :
  • تعداد نویسندگان :
  • تعداد کل پست ها :
  • آخرین بازدید :
  • آخرین بروز رسانی :

- در ایران و در TMA این دو دسته پرواز میکنند ← IFR & Controlled VFR

- AIP → State Of The Authority Of State

- PAN → Urgent & Distress Signal

- VFR subject to control → control airspace (instrument\visual)

- intercepted aircraft shall follow intercepting aircraft visual signal

- 30 دقیقه قبل از باطل شدن Flight Plan باید آنرا تمدید کنیم .

- در ایران QNH تا فاصله 25 مایلی معتبر است .

- we shall switch landing light twice if controller required .

- upper level of FL280 = FL310

- carry oxygen mask in pressurized airplane above the 25 000 feet

- در ایران QNH بر اساس H.P است وقتی درخواست شود .

- در ایران minimum flight level برای پروازهای IFR برابر با FL090 است .

- sigmet → 1 hour & flying time ahead of aircraft

- FDR minimum duration → 25 hours

- CVR minimum duration → 30 minutes

- در زمان پرواز روی آب در long range باید دو رادیو داشته باشیم .

- 2 time in year pilot shall check

- Survival radio equipment on VHF frequency

- in case of loss pressurized we have warning at less than 370 HPA

- اگر 50 مایل از ساحل فاصله بگیریم اجباری است برای هر مسافر یک جلیقه نجات داشته باشیم .

- control VFR enroute shall be equipped with magnetic compass .

- airplane is authorized to refueled when passenger embarring according annex 6 &14

- an aerodrome which may be listed in the flight plan an aerodrome of intended landing

- flight plan → specified information provide to ATS unit , relative to an intended flight or portion of a flight of an aircraft

- long range over water → 2 hours with 400 NM speed & 30 min or 100 NM which is less

- در پرواز Long Range روی آب باید جلیقه نجات به تعداد یا قایق برای همه افراد و حد اقل دو رادیوی سیار VHF که منبع نیروی آن غیر از خود هواپیما باشد .

- for period of 3 month required completed flight predation according annex 6

- radio failure in IMC → descend from the designated nav aid of destination at EAT or last acknowledge ETA

- IFR to visual approach → ceiling at or above the initial approach level

- report of next position and time over is on request

- position report → over or soon as possible after passing the compulsory reporting point

- aircraft with max mass of 5700 Kg shall be equipped with type IIa F.D.R

- aircraft with max mass of 27 000 Kg shall be equipped with type II F.D.R

- for operation above level FL490 shall have indicator to indicate solar cosmic radiation

- above 376 HPA shall be use oxygen mask → positive warning for pilot

- when carry 10% oxygen → operating at a level with 623 HPA

- operator shall be record oil and fuel for 3 mounts

- authorize carriage maximum 9 person or over 5700 feet without GPWS (ground proximity warning system)

- within 10 day we should report emergency case

- 30 minutes fuel over destination and alternate is compute at 1500 feet

- emergency power supply shall be minimum have a 30 minutes power

- every 20→40 (~30 minutes) minutes flight shall be report operational normal

- not above FL20 in Iran VFR flight is subject to control

- repetitive flight plan shall be filed for IFR

- flashing all available light it’s a initial signal from intercepting aircraft

- we will answer to tower in night during radio failed in pattern with switch twice navigation light

- وقتی هواپیمای intercept شده باند را میبیند باید در ارتفاع 1000 تا 2000 پایی circle بزند .

- advisory service → IFR flight plan

- AIP published by State

- when set QNH → height

- when set QNE → FL

- VMC climb & descend shall be take in day light

- minimum ceiling for VFR = 1500 feet

- for a reasonable period of time can fly in uninterrupted VMC

- IFR flight can execute visual approach

- IFR level shall be selected for CVFR

- heavy wake turbulence → call HEAVY in initial contact & after call sign

- say Heavy to approach control office

- at least 3 light unobstructed on aircraft

- VFR over congested area → 1000 feet

- above FL490 aircraft shall be equipped indicator to measure total cosmic

- VFR in control airspace shall use IFR level

- according operational flight plan aircraft shall adhere itself

- say operational normal every 30 minutes

- repetitive flight plan only for IFR flight

- VFR subject to control in TMA

- QNH → altitude

- in case of radio loss in IMC shall follow Current F.P.L

- transponder code 7500 = unlawful interference

- transponder code 7700 = intercepted aircraft

- urgent message → pan

- upper west bound level above FL280 = FL310

- lowest FL in Iran = 1500 , 1000 feet

- method of the specifying of minimum flight altitude in operational for non schedule

- بالای ارتفاع 12500 پا خلبان باید حتما اکسیژن داشته باشد و مسافرین باید بالای 14000 پا اکسیژن مصرف کند .

- Turbo jet (without alternate) : departure → destination + 2 hours

- Turbo jet (with alternate) : departure → destination → alternate + 30 minutes

- Propeller (without alternate) : departure → destination + 2 hours Or 45 min + 15%

- Flight plan submitted → 60 min before departure

- Advisory service for IFR → class F

- Deference annex12 & ICAO in AIP → SAR

- Deference annex10 & ICAO in AIP → CCM

- Type Of Fuel Of Each Aerodrome → AGA

- Deference Of Annex & DOC 4444 & Specification of air way → RAC

1013.8→1050

1013.2→1013.7

995.2→1013.1

897.1→995.1

QNH

95

100

105

110

Transition Level

TA+500

TA+1000

TA+1500

TA+2000

 

- approach CAT I : height not lower than 200 feet and visibility not lower than 800 meter or RVR not lower than 550 meter

- approach CAT II : height not lower than 200 feet but not lower than 100 feet and RVR not lower than 350 meter

- night → between the end of evening civil twilight & beginning of morning civil twilight

- civil twilight → the center of the sun disc is 6° below the horizon

- if have a case of emergency → pilot shall be report to local authority without delay and within 10 day report to state of registry

- airworthiness of aircraft → over 5700 Kg

- VFR navigation → more than 60 NM

- RNP → required navigation performance

- navigation light red & green 110° and whit 140°

- ceiling → more than half below 20 000 feet

Crew Member

Annex 1

General Rules

Annex 2

Operating

Annex 6

Air Space

Annex 11

Accident Incidence

Annex 13

Noise

Annex 16

Danger's Goods

Annex 18

ALL AIRCRAFT SHALL BE EQUIPED

At least one portable fire extinguisher

Pilot comportment & separate passenger compartment

Seat belt for each seat

Flight manual or other document

Chart for the rout

Electrical fuse

Safety harness for crew

Equipment with search & rescue aid

ALL IFR SHALL BE EQUIPED

Magnetic compass

Accurate timer

Sensitive altimeter

Airspeed indicator

Attitude indicator

Heading indicator

Indicator for supply power gyro

VVI

Radio for communication

Out side air temperature

ALL VFR SHALL BE EQUIPED

Magnetic compass

Accurate timer

Sensitive altimeter

Airspeed indicator

ALL FLIGHT IN NIGHT

IFR equipment

Landing light

Light in each passenger compartment

Radio for communication

Electrical torch

GPWS Information

Excessive descent rate

Excessive terrain closer

Excessive altitude loss after T.O or Go-Around

Unsafe terrain clearance

Gear not lock down

Flap not in landing position

Excessive descend below instrument glide slop

OPERATOR

Responsible to establish method of supervision

Responsible to establish training program to unlawful

Responsible to establish flight check system

Responsible to establish provide operational manual

STATE OF THE OPERATOR

Responsible to approve formulation of flight time

Required the aerodrome operating minima establish

Establish operating supervision

PILOT IN COMMAND

Responsible aircraft during flight time

Responsible safety of all crew & passenger & cargo

- state → responsible to approved and established Instrument approach

- state of registry → prescribed instrument & equipment in aircraft

- navigation equipment → flight plan + RNP type + air traffic service


.منبع:http://mehdianjami.blogfa.com




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